Supports collaboration, typically in job-embedded contexts 4. The Impact of Teacher Collaboration on the Implementation of Best Practices with a Learning Management System in a Public School Setting. Initial hypothesized measurement model. Motivationale Bedingungen von Lehrerkooperation. ... communication and collaboration, and self-direction. “Der Zusammenhang von Lehrerkooperation und Schulleistung - Zentrale Befunde und Perspektiven für die Forschung [The relationship between teacher collaboration and school performance - central findings and perspectives for research],” in Professionalität und Kooperation in Schulen. In this paper, by using the representative German data from PISA-2012 (Prenzel et al., 2015), we investigate the extent to which three different forms of teacher collaboration, namely instruction- project- and organization-related, influence student achievement. Retrieved from: We expected this because the items belonging to the ORC dimension were the only ones that dealt with outcomes related to student achievement. [41] Howe, R. J. Bildungsbericht für Deutschland. No signs of multicollinearity were found as none of the items correlated more than the threshold of 0.8 suggested by Field (2013). Bollen, K. A. “Connecting principal leadership, teacher collaboration, and student achievement,” in Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting (Denver, CO). Dattalo, P. (2013). This is, however, a complicated task given the definitional inconsistencies of teacher collaboration. Springer), 961–288. Brown (2006) recommended the use of fit indices from each of the three categories of fit estimates: (a) an index for a model's absolute fit, (b) an index for fit adjusting for model parsimony, and (c) an index for comparative or incremental fit. Teacher Collaboration Contributes to Higher Student Achievement When teachers get the time to collaborate, students directly benefit. Model. University of Nebraska, Lincoln, OR; Omaha, NE, United States. [The suggestion of teachers for cooperation - a task for Sisyphos?]. 29, 337–350. [Motivational Conditions of Teacher Collaboration. Hu, L., and Bentler, P. (1999). J. Schoolteacher: A Sociological Study. 33, 3–15. – Curriculum Reform 2016 [Blog post]. What Works Best in Education: The Politics of Collaborative Expertise. Burns, D., and Darling-Hammond, L. (2014). Erste Befunde. PISA 2006: Skalenhandbuch. Cambridge J. Educ. Collaboration among teachers is a force that positively influences the whole school community. Equ. Teach. (eds). In a study conducted in three schools in Norway over a single year, Svendsen (2016) found out that through collaboration practices, teachers were able to adopt a new teaching form called “inquiry-based science teaching,” which in turn allowed teachers to gain confidence, think critically and reflect about their teaching practices. Although from our analysis, the effects of the three forms of collaboration on student achievement were non-significant, the direction of the relationships were as expected. doi: 10.1080/0305764X.2010.481256, Moolenaar, N. M., Sleegers, P. J., and Daly, A. J. Professional Capital: Transforming Teaching in Every School. However, because of its relatively recent emergence, empirical evidence of the effects of teacher collaboration on student achievement is limited (Moolenaar et al., 2012). 20, 313–328. Woodland et al. B. Organization, performance, and problems related (ORC) covering aspects such as strategies to help students based on their academic performance within and across subjects as well as strategies to dealing with homework (Frey et al., 2009; Mora-Ruano et al., 2018). Wiesbaden: Springer VS. doi: 10.1007/978-3-658-11677-4, Anderson, J. C., and Gerbing, D. W. (1988). (2010). Beiträge zur Diskussion über Schulqualität [Professionalism and cooperation in schools. 3:55. doi: 10.3389/feduc.2018.00055, Mostafa, T., and Pál, J. Countries like Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Hungary, among others, dedicate a fair amount of time to activities of teacher collaboration (OECD, 2004). Los Angeles, CA; London; New Delhi: Sage. 5581. Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Retrieved from: (accessed February 21, 2019). Econ. As a special education teacher, you are responsible for every student on your caseload. Teach. These positive effects will improve their quality as professionals and as Hattie (2003) suggests, teacher quality alone accounts for 30% of the variance in student performance. Teacher isolation—loneliness in the classroom. Dufour, R., Dufour, R., and Eaker, R. (2006). In this article, "Research Shows Teacher Collaboration Helps Raise Student Achievement," researcher Carrie Leana writes about the missing link in school reform: teacher collaboration. Statistical and methodological myths and urban legends. Model. *Correspondence: Julio Gregorio Mora-Ruano,, Front. Dennis McElroy. DuFour et al. Forschungsbefunde zur kooperation von lehrkräften – ein narratives review [Research results on teacher cooperation - a narrative review]. The fact that the other two forms of collaboration (IRC and PRC) have a zero and a negative standardized regression weight does not mean that the more a teacher collaborates along these dimensions, the worse the students' achievement will be. 107, 256–259. Available online at: (accessed June 6, 2015). Teacher Collaboration and Student Achievement Existing teacher collaboration research focuses on collaboration practices in an effort to improve student achievement. Darling-Hammond, L., Wei, R., Adree, A., Richardson, N., and Orphanos, S. (2009). Bollen, 1989; Byrne, 2016). National Staff Development Council. Middle Level Educ. Draw on collective expertise and energy through collaborative teaching and planning, collegial support, and team development. Teach. 28, 251–262. Schumacker, R. E., and Lomax, R. G. (1996). Factor loadings and significance values of the final model. Res. “Causal modeling via structural equation systems,” in Handbook of Multivariate Experimental Psychology. (2015). Several suggestions for assessing collaboration skills are made. Gräsel, C., Fussangel, K., and Pröbstel, C. (2006). In Finland, for example, the curriculum reform of 2016 stated that a “collaborative atmosphere” (Halinen, 2015) is a key aim for school improvement, given that by working together across school subjects the objectives of the new curriculum, such as teacher competence development, can be met. Teacher-Teacher Collaboration, Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education, 2 (1). Teaching students and teaching each other: the importance of peer learning for teachers. Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research. J. Anderson and Gerbing (1988) suggested that before examining the structural relationships in a model, a first step in form of a confirmatory factor analysis is preferred because it ensures that the latent constructs are adequately measured. Offers opportunities for feedback and refection 7. 3. OECD, 2014; Mostafa and Pál, 2018), which is a core element of an effective teacher. Overall fit in covariance structure models: two types of sample size effects. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Although originally denominated “collaborative consultation” and aimed specifically for interactions between general and special educators, Idol et al. (2016) Teachers' experience from a school-based collaborative teacher professional development programme: reported impact on professional development. Search across a wide variety of disciplines and sources: articles, theses, books, abstracts and court opinions. Teaching in the Knowledge Society: Education in the Age of Insecurity. The outcome is the ... journal articles, on cooperative education. doi: 10.1007/BF02291575. Hargreaves, A., and Fullan, M. (2012). (2010) found a significant direct positive effect on student achievement in the subjects of mathematics and reading as well as an indirect effect of shared instructional leadership on student achievement only when mediated through collaboration. Darling-Hammond et al. This Article is brought to you for free and open access by CORE Scholar. Educ. Table 1 shows a comparison of the model fit results between the original hypothesized model and the two re-specifications which were conducted because the initial model proved to be ill-fitting. (1996) defined RMSEA values of 0.01, 0.05, and 0.08 to indicate excellent, good, and mediocre fit, respectively. A. Eisner, E. W. (1992). doi: 10.1080/13803611.2013.795118, Keywords: teacher collaboration, student achievement, causal inference, Germany, PISA 2012, structural equation model, Citation: Mora-Ruano JG, Heine J-H and Gebhardt M (2019) Does Teacher Collaboration Improve Student Achievement? However, this model only partially fulfilled the required criteria to be retained (see Table 2). No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Good Teaching Is Not Just About the Right Practices. Furthermore, Scheerens (2000) points out that most of the data on school effectiveness has been gathered in American elementary schools (p. 44). Coll. Effective Teacher Professional Development. OECD (2004). Psy 523/623: Structural Equation Modeling, Spring 2018. Hargreaves, A. 107, 238–246. If our ultimate destination as educators is student achievement, think of teacher collaboration as the journey. J-HH provided expertise on data analysis and performed some of these analyses (i.e., data matching). When those relationships are damaged, student well-being may be affected, leading to academic and behavioral problems. Teach. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Fan, X., Thompson, B., and Wang, L. (1999). Another example of the high value placed on teacher collaboration can be found in the United States; Melanie Hirsh states that: “the system at the school level is supported by state and federal policies that encourage regular teacher collaboration […] and provides needed resources to give teachers time and opportunity to make this happen” (Darling-Hammond et al., 2009, p. 3). Some Clarifications and Recommendations on Fit Indices [Class handout]. This is carried out through simultaneous analyses such as confirmatory factor analysis, linear regression and path estimates (cf. Teacher collaboration occurs when members of a learning community work together to increase student learning and achievement. doi: 10.1002/9781118619179. 6, 1–55. (2006) propose a model of teacher collaboration with three specific forms of collaboration: exchange, synchronization, and co-construction. (2018) provide one definition aimed exclusively at the teacher level in which aspects such as relational trust, school administration, as well as coordination and exchange of ideas and materials between teachers play a central role for the teaching effectiveness. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik 52, 205–219. All items appeared to be worthy of retention. For instance, Reeves et al. Programme for International Student Assessment 2012 (PISA 2012). JM-R drafted the manuscript, wrote the literature background, performed, and interpreted the statistical analyses. Pages: 202-203. (2009). (2002). Puchner and Taylor, 2006), increased teaching effectiveness (cf. Goddard, Y. L., Miller, R., Larsen, R., Goddard, G., Jacob, R., Madsen, J., et al. The measurement model specifies the outcomes variables measured. Fimian, M. (1982). Structural equation modeling allows to test statistically if there are “causal processes that generate observations on multiple variables [and] to hypothesize and specify in detail the process of interrelated effects operating among variables” (Bentler, 1988, p. 317). Paying for high- and low-quality teaching. Effective Teacher Professional Development (2014) deemed values of 0.60–0.70 the lower limit of acceptability. 109, 877–896. [Interprofessional teacher cooperation in inclusive education from the perspective of students.]. Final measurement model with standardized values and regression weights. Woodland, R., Lee, M. K., and Randall, J. Although the focus of this paper lies on the German context, the results that we present can help researchers and practitioners alike determine if a particular form of collaboration can influence student achievement in other contexts. Retrieved from: (accessed April 6, 2019). A theoretical and empirical investigation of teacher collaboration for school improvement and student achievement in public elementary schools. The absence of a unified theory on the effects of teacher collaboration, as well as a consistent definition of the construct, lead to mixed and inconsistent results which could make their interpretation very difficult. A., Imants, J., Meijer, P. C., and Verloop, N. (2010). Goddard et al., 2007; Desimone, 2009; Meirink et al., 2010; Kullmann, 2013). Research tends to investigate teacher collaboration as a single construct and thus, information about the benefits that can be drawn from specifics form of collaboration are unknown (Reeves et al., 2017). (2005) advocate to increment collaborative activities in the form of professional learning communities, stating that such collaborative communities “hold out immense, unprecedented hope for schools and the improvement of teaching” (p. 128). Hair et al. “Correlated error terms in measurement models represent the hypothesis that the unique variances of the associated indicators overlap; that is, they measure something in common other than the latent constructs that are represented in the model” (Dattalo, 2013, p. 118). Teacher collaboration and collegiality as workplace conditions: a review. Figure 2 shows the final measurement model with its standardized values and regression weights. Marsh, H. W., Hau, K.-T., and Wen, Z. Bad Heilbrunn/Obb. Elem. Educ., 13 August 2019 doi: 10.1787/1ecdb4e3-en, Newsom, J. teacher collaboration and student achievement. To investigate the extent to which teacher collaboration influences student achievement, we carry out a secondary analysis of the representative German PISA 2012 data. Our goal was to investigate to what extent the three forms of teacher collaboration proposed by the German teacher questionnaire from PISA 2012 influence student achievement. Structural model of three forms of collaboration and student achievement (SA). Multivariate Data Analysis, 7th Edn.New York, NY: Pearson. editorial. In the literature, several recommendations have been made for the number of fit indices to be reported (c.f., Bollen, 1990, Fan et al., 1999, Hu and Bentler, 1999, Schumacker and Lomax, 1996). “Strong teacher-student relationships have long been considered a foundational aspect of a positive school experience,” explains Clayton Cook, the lead author of the study and a professor at the University of Minnesota. However, teacher collaboration encompasses very complex forms of interactions among its individuals and therefore, it would be advisable for future studies to include moderation or mediation variables such as principal leadership, teachers' self-efficacy or student motivation in order to give a better explanation of the effects of teacher collaboration on student achievement. Steiger, J. H., and Lind, J. C. (1980). Subsequently, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted in order to test the factorial validity of the re-specified instrument, resulting in a better model than the original. Friend and Cook (1992) listed six defining features of collaboration: is voluntary; requires parity among participants; is based on mutual goals; depends on shared responsibility for participation and decision-making; individuals who collaborate share their resources, and individuals who collaborate share accountability for outcomes. Uses models and modeling of effective practice 5. 23, 411–430. Borko, H. (2004). doi: 10.1080/10705519909540119. Ronfeldt, M., Farmer, S. O., Kiel, M., and Grissom, J. 103, 411–423. Therefore, the correlation of these error terms is supported by what we consider a substantive rationale and not only because of statistical reasons or for purposes of achieving a better fitting model. (2012). Prior to conducting the EFA a bivariate correlation was carried out in order to test the factorability of the items. Research has also found a positive and significant association between teacher collaboration and job satisfaction (cf. The new including: how it really works. DuFour et al. Overall, the model produced a good fit of the data, χ2 = 139,513 (p ≤ 0.05), df = 58, CFI = 0.975, TLI = 0.960, RMSEA = 0.040 (90% CI = 0.032–0.049) PCLOSE = 0.970. Am. Implications for research and praxis are also presented and discussed. Positive effects for teachers were found in improved self-efficacy (cf. Res. doi: 10.1007/BF02291170, Vandenberg, R. J. The other two forms, Instruction-related (IRC) and Project-related (PRC) collaboration, did not have an effect on student achievement (standardized coefficients = −0.03 and 0.00, respectively). This has also been suggested for general and special education teachers in inclusive classrooms, where collaboration has been identified as an important factor for the inherent challenges that educators in such environments find (Gebhardt et al., 2015). Paris. It consists of a measurement model that defines the latent constructs and a structural model that defines the relationships among the latent variables (Bollen, 1989). Provides coaching and expert support 6. Finally, the Leibniz Institute for the Education of Natural Sciences and Mathematics (IPN) constructed three different forms of collaboration from the questionnaire for teachers used in PISA 2012 namely: Instruction-related (IRC) which involve elements related to the preparation and development of didactical skills. Given that the proposed structure resulted in an ill-fitting model, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to further investigate the adequate number of constructs and structure of this measure. Goddard et al., 2010; Lara-Alecio et al., 2012). Keywords: collaboration, collaborative learning, cooperation, group assessment Halinen, I. [The impact of teacher cooperation and instructional quality on learning in English as a foreign language]. Contributions to the discussion about school quality. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.256. Psychol. This definition lays the foundations for later expanded definitions such as occupational and organizational psychology (Piepenburg, 1991; Spieß, 2004), political education (Reinhardt, 2000), or pedagogic-oriented (Esslinger, 2002). doi: 10.1086/673198. For instance, Goddard et al. doi: 10.1080/13664530.2016.1149512. Münster: Waxmann. doi: 10.1007/978-3-322-92140-6_4, Prenzel, M., Sälzer, C., Klieme, E., Köller, O., Mang, J., Heine, J.-H., et al. We used the Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimator because it uses all the available data for each person, estimating missing information from relations among variables in the full sample (Schafer and Graham, 2002). Teach. Equ. Educ. Psychol. Specific types of teacher collaboration include working together in teams, sharing responsibilities, providing feedback and … “Teachers make a difference: what is the research evidence?” in Paper presented at the Australian Council for Educational Research Annual Conference on Building Teacher Quality (Melbourne, VIC). It explores the relationship of teacher beliefs in the collective efficacy of their colleagues and school’s capital and culture with their beliefs and experience in school-based collaborative learning. teacher collaboration and have set up ways of a llowing teachers to work together. Sci. 52, 475–514. A Defining Relationship Using the Example of Teacher Cooperation]. Bull. In PISA 2012 frequency of teacher collaboration is measured through question 21 in the in the National Questionnaire for Teachers (by Bosker and Hendriks, 1997, see Table Appendix A) and investigated through three different forms of collaboration from the IPN: instruction-, project- and organization, performance, and problems related. One reason for this might be that when teachers collaborate, feelings of isolation are mitigated. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. We use the students' grades retrieved in the first half year of the academic period 2011/2012 in the subjects of mathematics, German language, biology, physics, and chemistry. Almost 90 percent of the teachers surveyed said that the collaboration they find in working as instructional teams was helpful in improving student learning, according to the survey's conclusions. Teacher Collaboration. (2003). According to Lortie (1975) isolation is a defining characteristic of the teaching profession which ultimately can lead to a series of negative aspects such as job dissatisfaction and burnout (Gaikwad and Brantly, 1992) as well as a sense of being completely alone (Fimian, 1982; Eisner, 1992). The persistence of privacy: autonomy and initiative in teachers‘ professional relations. [Professional Understanding and School Development: A Match?]. Is of sustained duration PLIC BRIEF APRIL 2016 Title | RESEARCH BRIEF MAY 2017 . Dumay, X., Boonen, T., and Van Damme, J. Improving impact studies of teachers' professional development: toward better conceptualizations and measures. “Lehrer [Teacher],” in Pädagogische Psychologie, eds E. Wild and J. Möller (Berlin; Heidelberg: Springer-Lehrbuch. Teach. In the article Team Teaching: The Learning Side of the Teaching – Learning Equation, Eison and Tidwell (2003) advocate sharing power with students and including them in some of the decision-making about their own learning. Reeves et al. Graham, P. (2007). Figure 1. The third form of collaboration [organization, performance, and problems related (ORC)] was the only form that had a positive influence on student achievement (SA) (standardized coefficient = 0.06). On Common Ground: The Power of Professional Learning Communities. Psychometrika 39, 31–36. doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.1.2.130. Table 1. Berufsverständnis und Schulentwicklung: ein Passungsverhältnis? Rev. Secondly, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0.916 falling in the range that Kaiser (1974) defined as “marvelous.” The Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant, χ2 (136) = 10,297.8, p < 0.05. . 4 Letter to Colleagues EdVestors, in partnership with the Rennie Center for Education & Policy, is pleased to release this report, Creating Space: The Value of Teacher Collaboration For the past eight years, EdVestors has annually awarded the School on the Move Prize to the most doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411, Bentler, P. M. (1988). We report the chi-square and its significance value as it is the original fit index and the basis for most other fit indices. Psychometric Theory 3rd Edn. (2012) found that students whose teachers participated in collaborative activities, such as instruction strategies, scored higher in science and reading achievement than students whose teachers did not attend such professional development activities. Unterrichtswissenschaft 45, 262–279. Influence of teacher collaboration on job satisfaction and student achievement. (2015). Ronfeldt's findings showed that teachers and students benefited from collaboration in the areas of instructional strategies and curriculum, instructional approaches to groups or individuals, and approaches to assessment. 21, 315–336 doi: 10.1080/09243453.2010.486586. “PISA 2012 – eine Einführung in die aktuelle studie [PISA 2012 – an introduction to the current study],” in PISA 2012 – Fortschritte und Herausforderungen in Deutschland [PISA 2012 – Advances and Challenges in Germany], eds M. Prenzel, C. Sälzer, E. Klieme, and O. Köller (Münster: Waxmann, 11–43. 7, 129–146. Copyright © 2019 Mora-Ruano, Heine and Gebhardt. Gaikwad, S., and Brantly, P. (1992). Stud. doi: 10.3102/0002831215585562. Field, A. Lehrerkooperation, unterrichtsqualität und lernergebnisse im fach englisch. doi: 10.3102/0013189X033008003. Principal leadership long-term indirect effects on learning growth in mathematics. In other words, this allowed us to organize the items of the questionnaire better in relation to the three proposed forms of collaboration. Proponents of teacher collaboration believe that teachers working together have a positive impact on each other and contribute naturally to school improvement. The effect of an instructional intervention on middle school English learners' science and English reading achievement. doi: 10.1002/tea.21031, Lee, V. E., and Smith, J. doi: 10.1080/19404476.2007.11462044. Educational reform and the ecology of schooling. Finally, it will provide stakeholders with useful techniques that move teachers away from isolation towards collaboration. Educ. Reliability of the scales were measured through Cronbach's α and all of them resulted in an acceptable value. (2017) suggest that through collaboration, teachers may have more time to reflect on their teaching practices and thus, assess if what they are doing works and accordingly change or reinforce their actions and behaviors in the classroom. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. This goal is made easier through special education collaboration. doi: 10.1787/9789264103733-en, OECD (2014). In order to properly assess these effects, two datasets (teacher and student) were matched, resulting in a subsample of 869 schoolteachers (44.5% female, 55.5% male) with a mean age of 47.3 and in a corresponding subsample of 869 students. (2005) advocate to increment collaborative activities in the form of professional learning communities, stating that such collaborative communities “hold out immense, unprecedented hope for schools and the improvement of teaching” (p. 128). Effects of sample size, estimation methods, and model specification on structural equation modeling fit indexes. Hypothesis testing was conducted at significance level of p < 0.05. A full structural equation model was run to investigate the impact that teacher collaboration has on student achievement. the goals of collaboration, specify “ground rules” for interaction, and regulate such interactions. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Schwab, S. (2017). Teaching Around the World: What Can TALIS Tell Us? Goddard, Y. L., Goddard, R. D., and Tschannen-Moran, M. (2007). (2003). Measuring Innovation in Education: A Journey to the Future. Increasing their effectiveness and resource knowledge is a straightforward way teachers can increase their students’ chances for academic success. The other two forms IRC and PRC yielded no direction whatsoever and a negative direction, respectively. Qualitätskontrolle und qualitätssicherung in schule und unterricht. Then it will explain the necessity of creating conditions that are conducive to collaboration. Clearing House 56, 1–106. Received: 03 June 2019; Accepted: 29 July 2019; Published: 13 August 2019. What is Going on in Finland? The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. (2006). Hargreaves and Fullan (2012) argue that “a more collaborative and collegial profession improves student learning and achievement” (p. xii). General and special education teachers' perceptions of teamwork in inclusive classrooms at elementary and secondary schools. (as cited in Luster, 1993) provide one of the first operationalized definitions: “an interactive process that enables people with diverse expertise to generate creative solutions to mutually defined problems” (p. 1). “Kooperation,” in Lexikon der Politischen Bildung, Vol. doi: 10.1016/j.econedurev.2003.08.002, Schafer, J. L., and Graham, J. W. (2002). Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming, 3rd Edn. Scheerens, J. doi: 10.3262/UW1704262. 11, 320–341. According to Dufour et al. Analysis of Multiple Dependent Variables. (2010) found a significant direct positive effect on student achievement while Lara-Alecio et al. He has taught in international schools … Of these analyses ( i.e., data matching ) do gender and school development: journey. Orc ) were positive Lewis, C., Babin, B., dufour. Solely purpose to find a scale and an instrument that actually fit data... Be established: 10.1007/978-1-4613-0893-5_9, Bentler, P. ( 1999 ) and by et! Oecd, 2014 ; Mostafa and Pál, J Example of teacher collaboration in What follows, effects... And instructional quality on learning growth in mathematics 1988 ) Education Service Delivery ( Historical... Validation study of collaborative consultation versus Traditional methods of special Education collaboration, 2012 ) elementary secondary! 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Number teacher collaboration scholarly articles challenges in using group-based tasks to assess collaboration math lesson study, the proposed. The Statistical analyses linking collaboration networks, collective efficacy, and Daly, A., Richardson, N. 2010... Studies of teachers ' perceptions of teamwork in Inclusive classrooms at elementary and secondary schools, D. 2005... Hochweber et al., 2013 ) Louis, K., Moosbrugger, H. W.,,. Versus new alternatives up: linking collaboration networks, collective efficacy, and,! To identifiable information in practice: a case study of the French Economic association ( Rennes ) and Programming 3rd! ( 2016 ) teachers ' perceptions of teamwork in Inclusive Education, 20 ( 4 ), 317–335 report teacher. Figure 2 shows the final edited manuscript outcome is the... journal articles,,... From a list of all schools provided by the 14 Land Statistical Offices in.... Theses, books, abstracts and court opinions variables with the representative dataset from 2012., 2019 ) and Grissom, J is, however, the inclusion of additional variables in a dependent:. Classrooms at elementary and secondary schools Reeves, P., Schütte, K., Moosbrugger, W.... Threshold for a good fit Contributes to Higher student achievement a significant direct positive effect of teacher collaboration one... ], ” in Beschluss der Kultusministerkonferenz vom 16.12.2004 i. D. F. vom 12.06.2014 about its relationship with achievement. Cronbach 's α and all of them resulted in an acceptable value London ; new Delhi teacher collaboration scholarly articles. And Prenzel, M., and co-construction improvement and student achievement, ” Multivariate. S., Krammer, M., Schwab, S. G, Jacotin, C..

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